Resistance to currently available antimalarial drugs has been confirmed in only two of the four human malaria parasite species, first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Chloroquine history Plaquenil and sarcoidosis Malaria in humans is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, or P. malariae. In addition, P. knowlesi, a parasite of Old World Eastern Hemisphere monkeys, has been documented as a cause of human infections and some deaths in Southeast Asia. Chloroquine is a member of an important series of chemically related anti-malarial agents, the quinolone derivatives. Sep 15, 2001 The term “chloroquine resistance” can lead to misunderstandings when it is considered by some to refer to in vitro phenotypes, by others to refer to the ability of malaria parasites to survive chloroquine at therapeutic serum concentrations in vivo, and yet by others to refer to the outcome of a clinical episode after chloroquine therapy. Although resistance to these drugs tends to be much less widespread geographically, in some areas of the world, the impact of multi-drug resistant malaria can be extensive. Has also developed resistance to nearly all of the other currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Chloroquine resistant malaria meaning Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in., Chloroquine - definition of chloroquine by The Free Dictionary Hydroxychloroquine ativan An antimalarial agent used for the treatment and suppression of Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, and P. falciparum; available in phosphate and sulfate forms. It does not produce a radical cure because it has no effect on the exoerythrocytic stages; chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum have developed in Southeast Asia, Africa. Chloroquine definition of chloroquine by Medical dictionary. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria The Journal of Infectious.. Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial used for several decades and marketed in particular under the name of Nivaquine. This treatment is often recommended when planning to go to an area infested with the malaria parasite, transmitted by mosquitoes. Drugs for chloroquine-resistant malaria are quinine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination, mefloquine, artesunate and its derivatives, halfantrine and certain antibiotics. Regardless of origin, containing the spread of chloroquine-resistant parasites is crucial. Malaria elimination is a goal in Haiti, and it has been strengthened after recent events, but the effects of malaria and many other factors affect the achievability of this goal.